[:en]Localisation is currently underway to formalize the informal urban settlements of Dar es Salaam which currently comprise 70% of the city. Formalizing a settlement is incremental in giving legitimacy to a community and in increasing the security of tenure of the residents and their land rights. Formalizing settlements also allows for more detailed, sustainable city planning. Unfortunately, the current methods of data collection to understand these boundaries has resulted in inaccurate data and partial community engagement. Jikora, Emmanuel, UPM Student, “Community Mapping is a key instrument in shortening time at site during regularization, since any person can find necessary information like development and any other main features without the necessity of going to the site“.

To help improve current data collection methods needed for localisation, the HOT Tanzania team recently provided three days of training with 6 Masters students, all studying a Master of Science in Urban Planning and Management (Msc. UPM), and 3 members of staff at Ardhi University. Up until now, the method taken to map informal settlements has involved the use of drone and satellite imagery to identify resident boundaries. This process tends to be inaccurate and time consuming since local people are accustomed to the day to day 3D visualisation of their homes at street level, not a 2D drone image taken from above. The densely populated areas also make it almost impossible to identify individual houses and define boundaries.

Prof Tumsifu Jonas Nkya(right), Dr John Lukenangula at Ardhi University (left) installing and practising using Open Data Kit (ODK) during  training from Ramani Huria expert Iddy Chazua (middle)

 

Hoping to increase community participation and data accuracy, the HOT team have been teaching students and staff about open community mapping. “Community Mapping can facilitate community participation by inhabitants mapping their properties and involving them in any other data collection which is crucial for the regularization activity” – Luteranya Mapambano Msc student in UPM 2018. The training involved workshops on using OpenStreetMap (OSM), JOSM, OpenDataKit (ODK), and OpenMapKit (OMK). Using these tools, digital surveys can collect data at street level by speaking with inhabitants to identify land-use, ownership and usage of buildings, and socio-economic status of inhabitants. Tagging building attribute on OpenMapKit whilst conducting the surveys at ground level ensures that land-use can be defined more accurately. This data can then be used to map out residency boundaries.  This method is quicker and more environmentally friendly than previous paper surveys since the additional data inputting stage is removed from the process. By involving community members directly in the mapping process in a format that they can relate to, more accurate data is collected. When community mapping begins, local Shina (division of a sub-ward) leaders, Wajumbe, will accompany the field data collection team to speak with local inhabitants to reassure them.

OMK training led by Ivan Gayton, HOT Tanzania Country Manager

The maps created from this project will be accessible to everyone online through OpenStreetMap. This means that for the first time, inhabitants of informal settlement will exist on a map and can be more included and involved in future plans for their city.  Printed maps will be used as Town Planning drawing which will study existing city conditions and land-use and consider where resources should be allocated or which areas are in need of development. The maps will also help monitor changes in building usage since, currently, government officials don’t have a referral point for building use if someone requests permission to change building function. [:sw]Ujanibishaji wa sasa unafanyika ili kurasmisha makazi yasiyo rasmi ya Dar es Salaam ambayo sasa inafikia asilimia 70 ya jiji. Kurasimisha makazi kunasaidia kutoa uhalali kwa jamii na kuongeza usalama wa umiliki wa wakazi na haki zao za ardhi. Kujenga makazi pia kunaruhusu mipango zaidi ya kudumu ya mji. Kwa bahati mbaya, mbinu za sasa za ukusanyaji wa taarifa kuelewa mipaka hii imesababisha taarifa zisizo sahihi kutokana na ushiriki mdogo wa wanajamii.

Ili kusaidia kuboresha mbinu za kukusanya taarifa za sasa zinazohitajika kwa ujanibishaji, timu ya HOT  Tanzania imetoa siku tatu za mafunzo na wanafunzi 6 wa elimu ya juu  (Masters) wote wakijifunza Mipango na Usimamizi wa Mjini (Msc UPM), na wafanyakazi/wahadhiri 3 wa Chuo hicho. Hadi sasa, mbinu iliyochukuliwa kwenye ramani ya makazi yasiyo rasmi inahusisha matumizi ya picha za drone na satellite ili kutambua mipaka ya makazi. Utaratibu huu sui sahihi, hutumia muda mrefu kwa kuwa  watu wa ndani wamezoea picha za 3D (urefu, upana mna kimo) kila siku za nyumba zao kwenye barabara za mitaani, sio picha ya 2D ya drone (yenye urefu na upana) iliyochukuliwa kutoka juu. Maeneo yenye wakazi wengi pia hufanya kuwa ngumu kutambua nyumba za mtu binafsi na kufafanua mipaka.

Profesa Tumsifu Jonas Nkya (kulia), Daktari(Phd) John Lukenangula (kushoto) wakipakua na kujifunza kutumia Open Data Kit (ODK) kwenye mafunzo kutoka kwa mtaalamu kutoka Ramani Huria Iddy Chazua (Katikati).

Kwa tumaini la kuongeza ushiriki wa jamii na usahihi wa taarifa, timu ya HOT imewafundisha wanafunzi na wafanyakazi kuhusu ramani ya wazi ya jamii. Mafunzo yalihusisha jinsi ya kutumia OpenStreetMap (OSM), JOSM, OpenDataKit (ODK), na OpenMapKit (OMK), (programu za kutengeneza ramani zianzowekwa kwenye simu ili kukusanya taarifa). Kutumia zana hizi, tafiti za kidigitali zinaweza kukusanya taarifa katika ngazi ya mitaa kwa kuzungumza na wenyeji kutambua matumizi ya ardhi, umiliki na matumizi ya majengo, na hali ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya wenyeji. Kuweka sifa ya jengo kwenye OpenMapKit wakati wa kufanya tafiti ya ardhi kutakikisha kuwa matumizi ya ardhi yanaweza kufafanuliwa kwa usahihi zaidi. Kisha taarifa hii inaweza kutumika kupangilia mipaka ya makazi. Njia hii ni ya haraka zaidi na rafiki kwa mazingira zaidi kuliko tafiti za awali za karatasi na hatua ya ziada ya kuingiza taarifa inatolewa kutoka kwenye mchakato. Kwa kuhusisha wanajamii moja kwa moja katika mchakato wa ramani katika muundo ambao wanaweza kuhusishwa, taarifa sahihi zaidi hukusanywa. Wakati ramani ya jamii ikianza, Shina la mtaa (mgawanyiko wa viongozi wa mtaa), Wajumbe, wataongozana na timu ya kukusanya taarifa ili kuzungumza na wenyeji wa eneo kuwahakikishia lengo la mradi.

Mafunzo kwa vitendo kwa kuongozwa na Ivan Gayton, Meneja wa HOT Tanzania.

Ramani zilizotengenezwa kupitia mradi huu zitaweza kupatikana kwa kila mtu mtandaoni kupitia jukwaa la OpenStreetMap. Hii ina maana kwamba kwa mara ya kwanza, wenyeji wa makazi yasiyo rasmi watakuwa kwenye ramani na wanaweza kuingizwa zaidi na kushiriki katika mipango ya baadaye ya mji wao. Ramani zilizochapishwa zitatumika kama kuchora Mipango ya Mji ambayo itajifunza hali zilizopo za jiji na matumizi ya ardhi na kutafakari ambapo rasilimali zinapaswa kupewa au maeneo gani yanahitaji maendeleo. Ramani pia itasaidia kufuatilia mabadiliko katika matumizi ya majengo, kwa sasa, viongozi wa serikali hawana uhakika wa matumizi ya majengo ikiwa mtu anaomba idhini ya kubadilisha kazi ya jengo.

Baadhi ya wanafunzi walioshiriki kwenye mafunzo walikuwa na haya ya kusema:-“Ramani za kijamii zinaweza kuongeza ushiriki wa jamii na na kutengeneza ramani za  mali zao na kuwashirikisha katika kukusanya taarifs yoyote ambayo ni muhimu kwa shughuli za kuimarisha/kurasmisha makazi” – Luteranya Mapambano mwanafunzi katika taaluma ya mipango miji. 2017/18.

“Ramani ya Jumuiya ni chombo muhimu katika kupunguza muda wa kazi wakati wa kuimarisha/ kurasimisha, kwa kuwa mtu yeyote anaweza kupata taarifa muhimu kama maendeleo na vipengele vingine bila umuhimu wa kwenda kwenye eneo husika” – Jikora, Emmanuel, Mwanafunzi katika taaluma ya mipango miji. [:]