Hyperlocal Boundary Mapping

After the risk identification process implemented in 228 subwards of the city, Ramani Huria is now going further to map the lowest level of administrative system that exists in Tanzania. To do this we have partnered up with Data Zetu to map hyperlocal boundaries in Dar es Salaam for better decision making. Finding people with exact addresses is nearly impossible, as most part of the city is unplanned. Therefore, mapping Dar es Salaam to such a detailed level will allow us to address issues at a neighborhood level for the first time. This is very important and will be used in different levels for decision making from individuals to the government.

Dar es Salaam is divided into 5 municipalities, 92 wards, and approximately 452 subwards (a subward is also known as a “mtaa” in Swahili). Within an mtaa there are further divisions known as “shinas” (which translates roughly to “branches” in English). Shinas are sometimes also referred to as a “Ten Cell”, since originally these areas were home to ten households. Now, due to increases in population, it tends to be between 30 and 200 households per shina. Each shina is administered by a ‘mjumbe’ (plural ‘wajumbe’ in Swahili).

Shinas were originally a political construct, related to the organization of specific political parties. However, wajumbe are increasingly functioning as non-partisan public servants, often the first (and in some cases only) point of interaction between citizens and government. Though the political character of shinas has not entirely vanished, we are finding increasing acceptance amongst citizens and leaders (of all political stripes) of the utility of hyperlocal boundaries being mapped and known to all.

Ramani Huria and Data Zetu have aimed to conduct hyperlocal mapping within 84 subwards of Dar es  Salaam. From 13th September to now 128 hyperlocal boundary data have been collected and 106 have been cleaned and verified for final map production.

Ramani Huria Mapping Supervisor training university students on how to trace the hyperlocal boundaries and visualized map output. Photo credit: Godfrey Kassano-Ramani Huria

Methodology

  • A student will need a smartphone/Android phone installed with a revised version of Open Data Kit (ODK) which allows tracing lines/polygons easily.
  • Mjumbe, who is a shina leader, works with a student (mapper) to trace the boundary of his/her shina – also explaining the possible uses of shinas to enhance collaboration and participation. A student mapper with mjumbe will walk around the boundary creating a polygon-like structure then fill the right information on the survey such as number of shina, name of shina mjumbe and others.
  • After tracing the shina boundary, mjumbe and mapper use the the printed aerial imagery as a field paper to compare what has been traced from the field with the image to make sure they have traced the correct boundary.
  • Then students will send a form/survey to the server for further processes.
  • Data will be downloaded from the server which will be digitized through QGIS software, analysed and a hyperlocal boundary map produced.

Students with shina leaders verifying the correctness of traced boundary on ODK with the printed aerial image of the subward before sending to server. Photo credit: Godfrey Kassano-Ramani Huria

Community Insights

Community leaders had their opinions on the process of mapping shinas and they are expecting these data will be used to benefit them as a community, which is actually the goal of collecting them. Subward chairperson had some thoughts:

“With shina mapping it will help us to solve different problems in our communities since people will be clear with the administrative boundaries of their local leaders. Am happy to work with this organization and hopefully my representatives have fully participated and they are also happy for the work that your doing.” Abdallah M. Simbili, Chairperson Liwiti Subward.

Shina mjumbe in Msimbazi Subward – Tabata Ward showing the student mapper his shina boundary during field data collection. Photo credit: Godfrey Kassano-Ramani Huria

Possible uses of Hyperlocal Maps

  1. Help the ward officers to manage the areas by allowing the ward/subward/shina leaders to better understand the structure of their areas.
  2. In case of emergencies (e.g. fire outbreaks or flooding), shina maps can be of help in responding to these disasters as the location of the target is known.
  3. In hospitals, tracking people’s origin by identifying their shina number at the registry- this will help to track patients with diseases like cholera, or malnutrition in children.
  4. Shinas help the local people to know their representatives on the subward level since most of local problems are solved from the shina level.

Locating Malnourished Children and Help with Intervention

Malnutrition remains  one of Tanzania’s greatest  human development challenges. Despite  displaying seemingly ‘low’ and ‘acceptable’ rates of acute malnutrition, the burden of undernourished children is one of the highest in the East African Region. An estimated 450,000 children in Tanzania are acutely malnourished or weak, with over 100,000 suffering from the most severe form of acute malnutrition.

With one of the highest burdens of under nutrition in East and Southern Africa, it is not solely individual lives in Tanzania that are threatened, but also the economic advancement of the next generation that is at stake. Individuals – both adults and children – who experience varying levels of malnutrition will struggle to take advantage of opportunities in, for example, education and employment that would enable them to improve their livelihoods. Understanding the devastating impacts associated with societal malnourishment, particularly amongst children, it is absolutely crucial that appropriate measures are put in place by those actors who are in a position to do so to mitigate such consequences.

Case Study: Amana Regional Referral Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Through the Data Zetu program, our team has been able to utilize the shina data collected across 36  subwards to support the Amana Hospital – one of 4 referral hospitals in Dar es Salaam serving between 800 and 1200 people each day – in improving their methods for collecting patient location data and enhancing patient origin tracing. One pediatric doctor at Amana Hospital, Dr. Omari Mahiza, has a keen interest in implementing a system that would enable him to record and track the location of the malnourished children he treats. By knowing more precisely where his patients are coming from, he is able to investigate why and the reasons for children’s malnutrition from one community to another and, in turn, uncover in more detail the causes that lead to this condition from one household to another.

For the past few months, the Data Zetu team has been working with the IT company who built the electronic medical record system at Amana Hospital to incorporate shina data and nearby landmarks into the system. The new fields in the e-health registry will enable staff to record more precise location data of patients who visit the hospital and support Dr. Mahiza and his colleagues in being able to pinpoint the home address of their patients more easily. Whether the motive is to investigate specific cases of malnutrition and the habits that lead to this condition or to locate the source of a seasonal outbreak, such as cholera, within a community, shina maps allow for this to happen more efficiently within a given community.

The next step for the Amana Hospital intervention is to provide training and capacity-building to local staff, such as registration attendants and nurses, about the importance and value of recording detailed patient location data in the e-registry. To ensure there is genuine understanding and interest among staff to record patient location data more systematically, our team will focus on facilitating discussions and highlighting use cases that exemplify the role that maps and other spatial tools play in strengthening public health in communities.

Beyond health interventions Shina maps can also be used in disaster management, facilitating disaster response as well as increasing the overall flood resilience of communities. For example, having more granular level administrative boundaries can increase precision in identifying affected areas and speed up the distribution of relief resources during and immediately after a flood event.  Likewise having maps of shina boundaries may also prove useful to local administrators when directing and implementing infrastructural improvements.

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Utengenezaji wa ramani za mipaka ya shina.

Baada ya mchakato wa kutambua maeneo yaliyo kwenye hatari kwenye mitaa 228 ya jiji la Dar es Salaam, Mradi wa Ramani Huria unaenda mbali zaidi na kutengeneza ramani za maeneo ya chini kabisa ya utawala yaliyopo Tanzania (shina). tunafanya hivi kwa kushirikiana na mradi wa Data Zetu  kusaidia katika kufanya maamuzi. Kujua anwani za watu wanapoishi ni ngumu sana kwenye mji ambao haujapangwa. Hivyo kutengeneza ramani hizi kutasaidia kutatua matatizo mengi ya ramani kwa mara ya kwanza. Suala hili ni la muhimu sana na litatumika katika maamuzi kuanzia watu binafsi hadi ngazi ya serikali.

Dar es salaam imegawanyika katika manispaa tano, kata 92 na takribani mitaa 452. Ndani ya mtaa kuna mgawanyiko mwingine unaoitwa shina. Mashina pia hufahamika kama nyumba kumi, kwa kuwa mwanzoni mashina yalikuwa na nyumba kumii tu. Lakini kwa sasa kutokana na ongezeko la watu mijini mashina haya yana nyumba kuanzia 30 hadi 200. Kila shina huongozwa na mjumbe au balozi kwa vijijini.

Shina mwanzoni yalikuwa kisiasa,kulingana na mwongozo wa chama fulani. Hata hivyo wajumbe kwa sasawana kazi nyingi tofauti na za chama, kwanza ndio watu wa kwanza wanaounganisha wananchi na serikali. Japo suala la kisiasa katika shina halijapotea, ila tunaona wanaendelea kukubalika na wanajamii ana viongozi wa vyama vyote na matumizi ya mipaka hii ya shina kutengenezewa ramani na kufahamika kwa kila mmja.

Ramani Huria na Data zetu inalenga kutengeneza ramani hizi kwenye mitaa 84 ya Dar es salaam.  Tangu tarehe 13 septemba hadi sasa data za mashina 106 zimekusanywa na kuchakatwa kwa ajili ya utengenezaji wa ramani.

 Msimamizi wa utengenezaji wa ramani akitoa mafunzo kwa wanafunzi wa vyuo vikuu jinsi ya kukusanya mipaka na kuonyesha ramani ya mashina iliyokwisha japishwa; Picha- Ramani Huria.

Mbinu za Utengenezaji wa Ramani hizi.

  • Mwanafunzi atahitaji simu ya mkononi (Android) iliyowekwa programu ya ODK yenye marekebisho ambayo ina uwezo wa kuchukua taarifa za mistari kwa urahisi
  • Mjumbe, ambaye ni kiongozi wa shina atafanya kazi na mwanafunzi (aliyepata mafunzo) ili kupata mipaka ya shina- wakati huohuo mwanafunzi huyo atamueleza mjumbe juu ya matuizi mbalimbali ya ramani itakayo tengenezwa ili kuongeza ari ya usiriki. Mwanafunzi na mjumbe watazunguka katika mpaka wa shina na kujaza taarifa zote zinazotakiwa kama namba ya shina, jina la mjumbe nk.
  • Baada ya hatua hii, mjumbe pamoja na mwanafunzi watatumia picha ya anga iliyochapishwa ili kuhakikisha taarifa ya mipaka waliyokusanya kama ipo sahihi.
  • Mwanafunzi atatuma fomu/dodoso kwenye seva kwa ajili ya michakato mingine.
  • Taarifa hizo zitapakuliwa (download) kutoka kwenye seva ambazo zitafanyiwa kazi kwa kutumia programu ya QGIS, na kuchambuliwa ili kutengeneza ramani hizo za shina

Mwanafunzi akiwa na kiongozi wa shina wakihakiki mipaka iliyochukuliwa kwa kulinganisha picha ya anga na mpaka uliochorwa kwenye programu ya ODK; Picha Ramani Huria

Ufahamu wa Jamii.

Wanajamii walikuwa na mawazo tofauti tofauti kuhusu mchakato huu na wana matarajio makubwa kuwa data hizi zitatumika kwa ajili ya jamii husika, na hili ndilo lengo. Mwenywkiti wa mtaa wa Liwiti alikuwa na haya ya kusema:

“Ramani za mashina zitasaidia kutatua matatizo mbalimbali kwa kuwa watu watafahamu vizuri mipaka yao. Nina furaha kubwa kufanya kazi na shirika hili na ni matumaini yangu wawakilishi wangu amewapa ushirikiano mkubwa, na wamefurahi kufanya kazi nanyie” Abdallah M. Simbili, mwenyekiti wa mtaa- Liwiti

Mjumbe wa mtaa wa msimbazi- Kata ya Tabata akimuonyesha mwanafunzi mpaka wa shina lake wakati wa ukusanyaji taarifa. Picha: Ramani Huria.

Matumizi ya Ramani Hizi.

  • Itawasaidia watendaji wa mitaa kuelewa vizuri maeneo wanayo ongoza.
  • Kipindi cha dharura (kama moto au mafuriko), ramani hizi zinaweza kutuikaa kutoa misaada ya haraka kwa kuwa eneo halisi la tukio linafahamika.
  • Kwenye hospital, kujua watu wanapotoka kwa kujua namba za mashina katika programu ya usajili kuweza kujua ueneaji wa magonjwa kama kipindupindu na utapiamlo kwa watoto.
  • Kusaidia jamii kujua wawakilishi wao katika jamii kwa kuwa migogoro mingi hutatuliwa na viongozi hawa.

Kufahamu Maeneo ya Watoto wenye Utapia mlo na Kusaidia kwenye Harakati

Utapiamlo bado ni mojawapo ya changamoto kubwa za maendeleo ya binadamu Tanzania. Licha ya kuonekana/kusadikika viwango vya “chini” na vya “kukubalika” vya utapiamlo mkubwa, mzigo wa watoto wasio na chakula ni mkubwa Afrika Mashariki. Inakadiriwa watoto 450,000 nchini Tanzania wamepungukiwa na hawana nguvu, wakati zaidi ya watoto 100,000 huteseka kutokana na aina kali zaidi ya utapiamlo mkubwa.

Pamoja na mzigo mkubwa wa lishe Afrika Mashariki na Kusini mwa Afrika, sio tu maisha ya mtu binafsi nchini Tanzania ambayo yanatishiwa, lakini pia maendeleo ya kiuchumi ya kizazi kijacho yanahusika. Watu – wote wazima na watoto – ambao wana uzoefu wenye uzoefu tofauti tofauti wa janga la utapiamlo wajitahidi kutumia fursa, kwa mfano, elimu na ajira ambayo itawawezesha kuboresha maisha yao. Kuelewa athari mbaya zinazohusiana upungufu wa chakula, hususani miongoni mwa watoto, ni muhimu sana na hatua zinazofaa zichukuliwe na watendaji ambao wana uwezo wa kufanya hivyo ili kupunguza madhara hayo.

Eneo la mfano; Hospitali ya Rufaa- Amana Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Kupitia mradi wa takwimu za Data Zetu, timu yetu imeweza kutumia data ya mipaka ya shina iliyokusanywa kwenye mitaa36 ili kuunga mkono Hospitali ya Amana – moja kato ya hospitali nne za rufaa Dar es Salaam zinazohudumia watu kati ya 800 na 1200 kila siku – katika kuboresha njia zao za kukusanya data ya eneo la mgonjwa na kuimarisha ufuatiliaji wa taarifa za mgonjwa anapotoka. Daktari mmoja wa watoto katika Hospitali ya Amana, Dk. Omari Mahiza, ana hamu kubwa ya kutekeleza mfumo ambao utamwezesha kurekodi na kufuatilia maeneo wanayotoka watoto wenye utapiamlo anaowatibu. Kwa kujua zaidi ambapo wagonjwa wake wanatoka, anaweza kuchunguza kwa nini na sababu za utapiamlo wa watoto kutoka kwenye jamii moja hadi nyingine na, kwa upande mwingine, kujua kwa undani sababu zinazosababisha hali hii kutoka kaya moja hadi nyingine.

Kwa miezi michache iliyopita, timu ya Data Zetu imekuwa ikifanya kazi na kampuni ya IT ambayo imejenga mfumo wa kurekodi wagonjwa kwa njia ya kielektroniki katika Hospitali ya Amana ili kuingiza data ya shina na alama muhimu zinazotambulisha eneo (landmarks) kwenye mfumo huo. Sehemu mpya itakayoongezwa katika programu hiyo ya usajili wa kielektriniki utawawezesha wafanyakazi kurekodi data sahihi ya eneo la wagonjwa ambao wamefika hospitalini na kumsaidia Dk. Mahiza na wenzake kuwa na uwezo wa kubainisha anwani ya wagonjwa wao kwa urahisi. Ikiwa lengo ni kuchunguza matukio maalum ya utapiamlo na tabia zinazosababisha hali hii au kupata chanzo cha kuzuka kwa magonjwa ya msimu, kama vile kipindupindu, ramani za shina zitawezesha hili lifanyike kwa ufanisi zaidi katika jamii husika.

Hatua inayofuata kwa Hospitali ya Amana ni kutoa mafunzo na kujenga uwezo kwa wafanyakazi wa ndani, kama wahudumu wa usajili na wauguzi, kuhusu umuhimu na thamani ya kurekodi data ya eneo  anapotoka mgonjwa wakati wa usajili. Ili kuhakikisha kuna uelewa wa kweli na maslahi kwa wafanyakazi wa kurekodi data ya eneo wanapotoka kwa ufanisi zaidi, timu yetu itazingatia kuwezesha majadiliano na kuonyesha matumizi ya ramani kwa kuonyesha mifano dhahiri ya jinsi gani taarifa hizi zinaweza kuimarisha huduma za afya kwa jamii.

Zaidi ya mipango ya afya, ramani pia zinaweza kutumika katika usimamizi wa maafa, kuwezesha mipango ya haraka ya kukabiliana na maafa na kuongeza ustawi katika kupambana na mafuriko kwa jamii. Kwa mfano, kuwa na mipaka ya utawala katika ngazi ya chini zaidi inaweza kuongeza usahihi katika kutambua maeneo yaliyoathirika na kuharakisha usambazaji wa misaada wakati na baada mafuriko. Vivyo hivyo kuwa na ramani za mipaka ya shina inaweza kuwa na manufaa kwa watendaji wa mitaa wakati wa kuongoza na kutekeleza maboresho ya miundombinu.

Using Drone Imagery to Generate Flood Inundation Models

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Tandale Flood Inundation Model

Dar es Salaam is the largest city of Tanzania, it has an estimated 5.5 million residents and is  also an economic centre for Tanzania and East Africa. Offset with this economic and social importance, Dar es Salaam has a tropical climate, experiencing two rainy seasons in a year (April – May and November – December). These seasons are usually accompanied with high rainfall, with high potential for flooding.

The main reason for the floods to occur in Dar es Salaam is the mismatched pace of the population growth and building infrastructure. The city population is growing so fast that Dar es Salaam has become Africa’s fastest growing city, see here.

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Floods in Dar es Salaam

So by using the Ramani Huria experience and code for resilience knowledge and capacity, this project aims to add more efforts and effectiveness in flood resilience building by providing flood inundation models for most flood prone areas in Dar es salaam.

This helps the way the policy decisions are made especially from authorities that are responsible in building flood resilience schemes as they would have in hand one of the important tools (flood models).

The open technologies used in this project are GRASS, Qgis and Python.

Building

First step is to acquire an image for the area to be used for production of a flood map, for our case we used tandale image taken from a Drone.

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Tandale elevation image.

Then, the development of a flood map is done by using and combining different hydrological GRASS scripts, if these scripts are executed in a right chronological order for the imported image, a flood map can be created.

GRASS also provide more functions for dealing with hydrological modeling but for now we have focused on creating flood maps and making sure this works and meet the needs for creating a flood map.

Results

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MTI map produced from the tandale elevation model

Qgis and InaSAFE Integration

We are integrating this into InaSAFE by implementing a module in the plugin. This will enable one to produce these flood maps without any programming knowledge.

Source code can be found here.

Special Thanks

  1. COSTECH
  2. Buni
  3. Code for Resilience
  4. InaSAFE

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Tandale Flood Inundation Model

Dar es salaam ni mji unaokua kwa kasi zaidi Tanzania,unakadiriwa kuwa na idadi ya wakazi million 5.5,pia ni kitovu cha uchumi Tanzania na Afrika mashariki,sanjari na umuhimu wa shughuli za kijamii na kiuchumi,Dar es salaam ina hali ya hewa ya kitropiki ambapo hukumbwa na mvua za msimu mara mbili kwa mwaka(Mwezi wa nne -mwezi wa tano na mwezi novemba -Desemba)

Sababu hizi husababishwa na mvua kubwa, ambayo huambatana zaidi na mafuriko.

Sababu mahususi ya mafuriko kutokea Dar es salaam ni kutokulingana kwa ongezeko la watu na miundombinu ya majengo. Idadi ya watu katika jiji linakuwa haraka Dar es salaaam ,hivyo kuwa jiji linalokuwa kwa kasi  sana barani afrika, ona hapa

4Mafuriko Dar es Salaam

Mradi huu unalenga kuongeza juhudi na ufanisi katika majengo yaliyoathirika na mafuriko kwa kutoa modo za mafuriko kwa maeneo yote yanayokabiliwa na mafuriko Dar es salaam.

Hii inasaidia kufanyika  maamuzi ya sera hasa katika mamlaka husika katika kujenga miradi ya kuzuia mafuriko kukiwepo na zana muhimu.

Teckologia wazi inayotumika katika huu mradi ni GRASS,Qgis na Python

Jengo

Hatua ya kwanza ni kuwa na picha ya anga  ya eneo husika ambayo ambayo itakusaidia kutengeneza ramani ya mafuriko, mfano wetu tumetumia picha ya anga ya eneo la Tandale  iliyopigwa na ndege isiyokuwa na rubani(drone).

5Tandale, picha ya Mwinuko.

Baada ya hapo kutengeneza ramani ya mafuriko hukamilika kwa muunganiko tofauti wa(hydrological Grass Scripts), kama hizi Scripts zinatengenezwa kwa mpangilio na mtiririko ulio sahihi kwa picha ya anga iliyowekwa, kwa hiyo ramani ya mafuriko hutengenezwa.

Grass pia inatoa kazi mbalimbali zinazohusika na model za nishati ya maji lakini kwa sasa tumelenga katika kutengeneza ramani za mafuriko na kuhakikisha zinakidhi mahitaji yakutengeneza ramani za mafuriko.

Matokeo

16MTI map produced from the tandale elevation model

Qgis and InaSAFE Integration

Tunaunganisha pamoja na InaSAFE kwa kutekeleza moduli kwenye (plugin) Hii itasaidia kuweza kutoa ramani hizi za mafuriko bila kuwa na ufahamu wa kutumia progarmu.hapa

Shukrani za pekee kwa

  1. Tume ya Taifa ya Sayansi na Tecknologia
  2. Buni
  3. Code for Resilience
  4. InaSAFE

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Installing a 3D Printing Weather Station in Tandale

[:en]Accurate and precise weather information is critical to preparing for extreme weather events, such as flooding. In Tanzania, the weather forecasts are primarily conducted by the Tanzanian Meteorological Agency (TMA) and are available through their website. But, the forecasts are at a regional level, the question is, how can we get an understanding of weather at a local level?

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Building the weather station

As part of the Code for Resilience, supported by the Ramani Huria, the solution to this is being explored, using open source components such as Arduino and equipment that can be 3D printed. This has resulted in a weather station being deployed in Tandale Ward, Dar es Salaam, enabling up-to-date information about the weather situation in Tandale to be generated and made openly available.

In piloting this technology significant cost savings have been achieved. Traditional weather stations like the Davis Weather Meter (http://www.ambientweather.com/61dawivaprop3.html) cost around $1,200. In contrast our weather stations can be currently sourced for roughly $200. This cost will be dramatically reduced through 3D printing components locally with recycled plastic, this is very relevant to the Tanzanian innovation ecosystem currently, and offers opportunities for skills building for all. Learn more about this here:  3D Printing: The Rise of Home Manufacturing in Tanzania.

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CfR Fellow Amos Nzaga and Emmanuel of Ramani Huria Testing the functionality of the weather station

The data that is generated by the weather station is machine readable and not that usable for everyone else, as such, a weather station dashboard has been prototyped, designed to make the information generated by the weather station accessible and open to all.

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Weather Station Dashboard

This is just a first iteration of exploring how weather stations can be used and its data used to inform decisions for flood resilience. The ultimate goal is to use a network of weather stations to monitor the weather across Dar es Salaam and combine with the participatory and community mapping currently ongoing. From here we can investigate how a network of these stations could provide information to ward officers and community leaders on what actions to take during flood and extreme weather events, making Tanzania more resilient.

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Installation in Tandale with Osiligi Lossai, Ward Executive Officer

The code used to run and display weather information is all openly licenced within our project repository on our Github here: https://github.com/codeforresilience/weatherDashboard and data generated by the weather is also licensed as open data. Please get in touch with us for any questions or on twitter at @ramanihuria, @nzaga_amos, @SamweliTwesa.

[:sw]Upatikanaji wa taarifa sahihi na bora za hali ya hewa ni muhimu kwa kujiandaa na matukio ya hali ya hewa kama mafuriko. Utabiri wa hali ya hewa ndani ya Tanzania unafanywa na mamlaka ya hali ya hewa Tanzania na unapatikana kupitia tovuti yao hapa. Lakini utabiri huu ni kwa kiwango cha kanda, swali ni tunaweza kupataje uelewa wa hali ya hewa kwa kiwango cha kata?

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Kama sehemu ya mradi wa “Code for Resilience”, unaosaidiwa na Ramani Huria, suluhisho kwa hili suala linafanyiwa kazi, kwa kutumia vifaa huria kama Arduino na vifaa vinavyoweza kuchapishwa kwa kutumia plastiki. Hii imesababisha utengenezaji na ufungaji wa kifaa cha kupima hali ya hewa eneo la Tandale, Dar es salaam, na kuwezesha upatikanaji wa taarifa kuhusu hali ya hewa mapema zaidi na kisha kuzifanya kuwa taarifa huria.

Utumiaji wa teknolojia hii unapunguza gharama kwa kiasi kikubwa. Kwa kawaida kifaa cha upimaji hali ya hewa kwa mfano “Davis Weather Meter” (http://www.ambientweather.com/61dawivaprop3.html) kinagharimu karibu dola za kimarekani 1,200. Tofauti na hivi vifaa vinavyogharimu karibia na dola za kimarekani 200. Gharama inapunguzwa kwa kutengeneza sehemu za hiki kifaa kwa kuchapa plastiki, hii ni namna ambayo itaendana na mfumo wa ubunifu wa Tanzania kwa sasa, hii pia inatoa fursa ya kujenga huu ujuzi hapa Tanzania. Jifunze zaidi kuhusu hili hapa:  3D Printing: The Rise of Home Manufacturing in Tanzania.

 

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Mshiriki wa kaza za CfR Amos Nzagana Emmanuel wa Ramani Huria wakijaribisha ufanyaji kazi wa kifaa cha upimaji hali ya hewa.
Takwimu zinazoletwa na hiki kifaa zinaweza kusomeka kiurahisi na tarakilishi peke na si kila mtu, hivyo dashibodi ya kuzionesha vizuri kwa kila mtu imetengenezwa, imeundwa kutoa na kuzifanya huria taarifa zote kutoka kwenye kifaa hichi cha hali ya hewa.

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Dashibodi ya hali ya hewa

Hizi ni hatua za mwanzo kujua ni jinsi gani hivi vifaa vinaweza kutumia na taarifa zake kutumika katika kujipanga dhidi ya mafuriko. Lengo kuu ni kuwa na mtandao wa hivi vifaa kufuatilia hali ya hewa kote Dar es salaam na kisha kuchanganya na ukusanyaji shirikishi wa takwimu huria za ramani unaoendelea. Kutoka hapo tutaweza kuchunguza ni jinsi gani huu mtandao wa hivi vifaa unaweza kutoa taarifa kwa watendaji kata na viongozi wa jamii kuhusu ni mambo gani ya kufanaya wakati wa mafuriko na matukio makubwa ya hali ya hewa, hii itasiadia kuifanya Tanzania kujipanga zaidi.

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Ufungaji wa kifaa cha hali ya hewa Tandale pamoja na Osiligi Lossai, Afisa mtendaji kata

Programu ilitumika kukusanya na kuonesha taarifa inapatikana wazi kupitia akaunti ya Github hapa: https://github.com/codeforresilience/weatherDashboard na takwimu ziko kwa leseni ya takwimu huria. Unaweza kutuuliza maswali yoyote na tunapatikana twitter kupitia @ramanihuria, @nzaga_amos, @SamweliTwesa

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Creating Worldpop Inasafe Integration

[:en]Make the world’s population open data more accessible.

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As part of procedures in preparing better plans and risk reductions against natural disasters, Disaster Managers need accurate population data for the affected area. This helps in many ways from determining the scale of the disaster, impact assessment and analysis to planning for disaster resilience.

There are numerous challenges to accurate population data, some national statistics agencies don’t release this openly, some do not have the resources to create accurate population information. Worldpop provides a solution to this challenge, in providing a platform for global population data.

Most of technologies (eg. InaSAFE) that enable the Disaster Managers to do natural disaster impact assessment allow the usage of population data but do not provide a way to get the data direct from worldpop, instead requiring separate population data. This leaves the users with one option and that is to manually add this data. Wouldn’t it be better to pull this data automatically?

As such, the aim of this project was to improve the usability of how Inasafe uses population information, using WorldPop.  Our approach in making this tool was based on using open technologies and making any data obtained in the process open. This included a programming language called Python, a geospatial platform called Qgis and Node a cross-platform for developing web application.

This is how we built it.

API Implementation

It started by implementing an api for worldpop found here, this api was developed by Development Seed. This api implementation can be found here

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Github Repository for the Api Implementation

QGIS and InaSAFE Integration

After setting up a server that query worldpop data. The next step was to add functionality into InaSAFE a qgis plugin that produces realistic natural hazard impact scenarios for better planning, preparedness and response activities.

We targeted this tool because it is the one that most Disaster Managers are familiar with, especially in Tanzania, where Ramani Huria made this possible by giving InaSAFE training to the Disaster Managers.

Source Code for this can be found here.

Site Development

The site is available here, this was developed by using Node. It features explanation on how to use the tool to download population data in Qgis and by using a python script. Check out the video showing the functionality of this.

This tool is now available for usage, as it has been tested thoroughly and it is stable, we’re in the process of pushing our work into the next InaSAFE release. Watch this space!

Please get in touch with us for any questions or on twitter at @RamaniHuria, @SamweliTwesa or @Mgweta

SPECIAL THANKS

    1. COSTECH
    1. BUNI
    1. Code for Resilience
    1. InaSAFE
  1. Development Seed

[:sw]Wezesha takwimu za idadi ya watu duniani kupatikana na kuwa huria.

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Kama sehemu ya taratibu za kupanga mipango bora ya kupunguza uharibifu utokanao na majanga asilia, wasimamizi wa maafa huwa wanahitaji taarifa sahihi za sehemu zilizoathirika. Taarifa hizi husaidia kwa njia mbalimbali kujua ukubwa wa maafa, kufanya tathmini ya athari na kufanya uchambuzi kwa ajili ya kujiandaa vizuri dhidi ya maafa.

Kuna changamoto nyingi kupata taarifa sahihi za idadi ya watu, baadhi ya mashirika ya takwimu kitaifa hayatoi hizi taarifa kwa uwazi, baadhi hawana rasilimali za kukusanya taarifa sahihi. Shirika la Worldpop linatoa suluhisho kwa hii changamoto, shirika hili limewezesha upatakinaji wa takwimu za idadi ya watu duniani.

Teknolojia nyingi (mfano. InaSAFE) zinazowezesha wasimamizi wa maafa kufanya tathmini ya athari za majanga asilia, huwa zinaruhusu utumiaji wa taarifa za idadi ya watu kufanya tathmini lakini hazitoi namna ya kupata hizi taarifa moja kwa moja kutoka shirika la Worldpop, badala yake huhitaji hizi takwimu pembeni. Hii inaleta mlolongo mkubwa kwa mtumiaji wa teknolojia hizi.

Ingekuwa vema mtumiaji aweze kuzipata hizi takwimu moja kwa moja kupitia hizi teknolojia.

Kutokana na hili, lengo la hii kazi ni kuboresha utumiaji wa taarifa za idadi ya watu katika teknolojia ya Inasafe, kwa kutumia WorldPop. Mbinu iliyotumika kwenye kutengeneza programu inayowezesha hili ni matumizi ya teknolojia huria na kuhakikisha takwimu zote zinazopatikana baada hapa zinakuwa takwimu huria. Hii ilihusisha programu nyingine kama Python, Qgis programu ya masuala ya ramani na Node ambayo ni mfumo kwa ajili ya kutengeneza programu za mtandao.

Na hivi ndivyo tulivyotengeneza.

Utengenezaji wa API

Ilianza kwa kutengeneza api kwa ajili ya Worldpop inapatikana hapa, hii api ilitengenezwa na Development Seed. Api hii inapatikana hapa.

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Github, sehemu inapopatikana Api

Uunganishwaji wa QGIS na InaSAFE

Baada ya kutayarisha tarakilishi ya kukusanya takwimu kutoka Worldpop. Stepu iliyofuata ni kuongeza programu ya ukusanayji huu ndani ya teknolojia ya InaSAFE, ambayo ni teknolojia inayofanya tathmini halisia za matukio ya hatari, kwa ajili ya kuboresha mipango na kazi za uokoaji.

Tulitumia hii teknolojia kwa sababu wasimamizi wengi wa maafa wanaifahamu haswa wa Tanzania, ambapo Ramani Huria waliwezesha hili kwa kutoa mafunzo ya InaSAFE kwa wasimamizi wa maafa.

Mafaili ya programu yanapatikana hapa.

Utengenezaji wa tovuti

Tovuti inapatikana hapa, imetengenezwa kwa kutumia Node. Ina maelezo ya jinsi ya kutumia programu ya kupakua takwimu za idadi ya watu kwenye Qgis na kwa kutumia python.

Angalia video inayoonesha haya maelekezo.

Hii programu inapatikana kwa matumizi, imejaribishwa mara nyingi na iko vizuri, tuko kwenye taratibu za kuweka kwenye teknolojia ya InaSAFE. Endelea kutembelea hii blogu.Unaweza kutuuliza maswali yoyote na tunapatikana twitter kupitia @RamaniHuria, @SamweliTwesa au @Mgweta

ASANTE KWA

  1. COSTECH
  2. BUNI
  3. Code for Resilience
  4. InaSAFE
  5. Development Seed

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Mapping Bicycle Routes During Dar es Salaam’s Cycle Caravan

Each year, 5th June marks World Environment Day, a day for raising global awareness to take positive environmental action to protect nature and the planet Earth. This year’s Sunday 5th June saw UWABA (Umma wa Wapanda Baiskeli; or “Public Cycling Community”), a cycling community in Dar es Salaam in cooperation with European Union, organizing the cycle caravan. This is to support low carbon transport, to promote environmental alternatives to high carbon transport as well as putting emphasis on the presence (or absence) of bicycle roads/routes in the city.

With the motivation to do the mapping for the city, Ramani Huria fully participated to support the initiatives by UWABA community and map the possible bicycle routes around the city. This was done through tracking the caravan’s route with the use of GPS unit tied on the bicycle.

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GPS attached to a bicycle. PHOTO CREDIT: Ramani Huria

The event was scheduled to start at 7 AM at the Mnazi Mmoja grounds with registration of the participants, provision of free reflector jackets, bicycle helmets and bicycle reflectors to all participants.

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Participants with their reflector jackets on. PHOTO CREDIT: Ramani Huria

Most of the attendees for the event ranged from disabled people with hand bikes and abled people including women, children and men with the coverage of different media sources.

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Disabled participants in the back and a lady with her child. PHOTO CREDIT: Ramani Huria

After all attendee arrives, including January Yusuph Makamba, a minister of State in the Vice President’s Office for Union Affairs and Environment, the caravan started at 08:45 AM. The route went along Bibi Titi road, Ohio Street, Sokoine Driveway, Chimara Street, Barack Obama Drive to Agha Khan Hospital, where people had short break to catch their breath. After that, the caravan continued to Salender Bridge and took the United Nations Road to Morogoro Road (Fire Squad Headquarters), followed the Morogoro Road and caught Lumumba road back to Mnazi Mmoja.

Throughout the process, the routes used for the caravan were basically not only meant for cycling purposes, but rather, they were roads for general uses such as cars, motorcycles etc. With the escort and support from traffic police, cars within the major roads were blocked leaving clear way for the caravan to go through. This isn’t an everyday occurrence, with cyclists usually competing for space with traffic.

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The caravan’s route (GPS traces) around the city centre.

Back at Mnazi Mmoja, while attendees had snacks and water to eat and drink, Mr. Mejah Mbuya, chairperson for UWABA gave a short speech on the importance of using bicycles as low carbon transport around the city. With the fact that Dar es Salaam is much affected by traffic jams, Mr. Mbuya emphasized on the use of bicycles to minimize it.

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PHOTO CREDIT: Ramani Huria

At the end of the event, 5 hand bikes to 5 lucky disabled people, and 15 bicycles were awarded to 15 people who attended the caravan. Unfortunately, no attendee from Ramani Huria team won any bicycle, but did have fun while mapping!

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15 bikes for winners. PHOTO CREDIT: Ramani Huria

Ramani Huria is looking forward to joining forces with UWABA in mapping and promoting low carbon transport i.e bicycle usage throughout Dar es Salaam.[:sw]Kila mwaka,tarehe 5 juni inawakilisha siku ya mazingira duniani, siku ya kuhamasisha ulimwengu kuchukua hatua chanya kimazingira za kutunza hali  na sayari ya dunia. Mwaka huu tarehe 5 juni

Tulishuhudia UWABA (Umma wa Wapanda Baiskeli),jumuiya ya waendesha baiskeli Dar es Salaam wakishirikiana na umoja wa Ulaya, waliandaa msafara wa kuendesha baiskeli. Hii ilikuwa na lengo la kusaidia kupunguza hewa ya ukaa, kuhamasisha njia mbadala ya  kupungza usafiri unaotoa hewa ya ukaa pia na kuweka msisistizo katika kuwepo (au kutokuwepo) kwa njia za baisikeli katika jiji.

Katika kuhamasisha kutengeneza ramani ya jiji, Ramani Huria walishiriki kikamilifu kwenye mipango ya jumuiya ya UWABA na kutengeneza ramani ya njia za baiskeli zilizopo katika  jiji. Hii ilifanyika kwa kufuatilia msafara wa baiskeli kwa kutumia kifaa cha GPS ambacho kilifungwa kwenye baiskeli.

IMG_20160605_075203GPS imefungwa kwenye baiskeli. PICHA IMEPIGWA: Ramani Huria.

Tukio  lilianze saa 1 asubuhi kama lilivyopangwa kutokea viwanja vya Mnazi Mmoja kwa usajili  wa

Washiriki, na kugawiwa bure  makoti ya kuendeshea baiskeli , helementi za baiskeli na reflector za baiskeli kwa washiriki wote.

IMG_20160605_083648Washiriki wakiwa wamevaa makoti ya kuendeshea baiskeli. PICHA IMEPIGWA: Ramani Huria

Washiriki wengi wa tukio walikuwa walemavu na baiskeli zao maalum na watu wasio walemavu wakiwemo wanawake, watoto na watu waliotoka katika vyombo vya habari mbalimbali.

IMG_20160605_073322Washiriki wenye ulemavu, nyuma mama akiwa na mtoto wake.PICHA IMEPIGWA: Ramani Huria.

Baada ya washiriki wote kufika, akiwemo waziri wa nchi ofisi ya makamu wa raisi muungano na mazingira Mh. January Yusuph Makamba,msafara ulianza saa 2:45 asubuhi.Msafars ulipitia barabara ya Bibi titi mtaa wa Ohio,barabara ya Sokoine, mtaa wa Chimara, barabara ya Barack Obama kuelekea hospitali ya Agha Khan, ambapo kulikuwa na mapumziko mafupi. Baada ya hapomsafara uliendelea kuelekea daraja la Salender na kupitia barabara ya umoja wa mataifa kuelekea barabara ya Mororgoro (makao makuu ya zima moto) na kupitia barabara ya lumumba kurudi mnazi mmoja.
Muda wote wa zoezi, njia zilizotumiwa na msafara hazikuwa kwa ajili ya waendesha baiskeli,bali zilikuwa ni barabara za matumizi mbalimbali kama vile magari pikipiki n.k.kwa msaada wa polisi wa barabarani magari yalikuwa yanatumia barabara kubwa yalizuiwa ili kupisha msafara

CaptureNjia za msafara zinavyoonekana( kifaa cha GPS) katika jiji

Baada ya kurudi viwanja vya mnazi mmoja, wakati washiriiki wakipata maji,Mwenyekiti wa UWABA Mr.Mejah Mbuya alitoa hotuba fupi juu ya umuhimu wa kutumia usafiri wa baiskeli kama njia ya kupunguza hewa ya ukaa,ukizingatia ukweli kwamba Dar es salaam inakabiliwa na msongamano mkubwa wa magari Mr Mboya alisisitiza katika kutumia usafiri wa baiskeli kupunguza msongamano huo.

IMG_20160605_102429PICHA IMETOLEWA; Ramani Huria.

Mwisho wa tukio,Walemavu watano walibahatik kupata baiskeli maalum na baiskeli nyingine kumina tano zilitolewa kwa washiriki kumi na tano.Kwa bahati Mbaya hakuna mshiriki kutoka Ramani Huria aliyefanikiwa kupata baiskeli lakini tulifurahia zoezi zima.

IMG_20160605_073339Baiskeli kumi na tano kwa washindi. PICHA IMETOLEWA;Ramani Huria.

Ramani Huria inatarajia kushirikiana na juhudi za UWABA katika kutengeneza zamani na kuhamasisha utumiaji wa usafiri unaozalisha hewa ndogo ya ukaa kama vile matumizi ya baiskeli ndani ya jiji zima la Dar es Salaam.

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#TanzaniaCfR: Coding for Flood Resilience

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CfR Fellows and Mentors

CfR Fellows and Mentors

Dar es Salaam and Stone Town are the two primary cities of Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar, with populations of 5.5 million and 150,000 respectively. Each of these cities and their country have unique challenges and hazards. Dar es Salaam for instance is challenged by bi-annual flooding, impacting many thousands of its citizens every year. In response to this, the World Bank, GFDRR, Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team and the Red Cross are supporting the Tanzanian Commission of Science and Technology, Buni Innovation Hub, Dar es Salaam City Council, Ardhi University and the University of Dar es Salaam with a community mapping for flood resilience project, Ramani Huria. In coordinating all of these actors, Ramani Huria has leveraged the skills of over 100 community members, 150 students, collecting data in the most flood prone neighbourhoods of Dar es Salaam, making maps and underlying data freely available for Dar es Salaam.

The convergence of these organisations and community members has kickstarted many discussions around how data and maps can improve the livelihoods of citizens, but also provided focus on how enhance the capacity of flood resilience and response by local and national government. This was fertile ground for Code for Resilience, a World Bank and GFDRR supported program, aimed at brining the next generation of technologists together with policy and decision makers to create the next generation of resilience applications. This is done through supporting six of the Tanzania’s brightest young technologists through a fellowship and mentorship program, working on problem statements derived from decision and policy makers.

This combination has led to the enhancement of the QGIS and InaSafe, open source softwares that create flood impact scenarios, that can then be used to inform on community level infrastructure improvements and/or evacuation planning. One such enhancement is the addition of elevation analysis to identify the extent of flood prone areas, based upon the amount of rainfall that such an area receives. This is an open source application that will automate the hydrologic analysis for Dar es Salaam City Council and allow for inundation scenarios to be created by community level civil servants, but also by the global commons.

Every city has it’s own priorities, in Zanzibar, the challenge is around organising the data that they already have. The open source ZanSea Geonode is helping do exactly this, with the support of StatOil, Obscom and the State University of Zanzibar, Zanzibar’s geospatial data is being organised. Metadata is a key part of data organisation, and one that two Code For Resilience fellows from the State University of Zanzibar, Massoud Hamad and Yussuf Said, are working on providing end to end metadata exchange, from Geonode to QGIS and back. In future this will allow metadata to be created and updated during data storage, retrieval, analysis and back to storage for the ZanSea Geonode and in future releases of Geonode around the world.

Each of these projects and others, such as 3D printing weather stations from recycled plastic and automating the delivery of population statistics, were initiated on the 30th of January at the Buni Innovation Hub in Tanzania. This event incorporated mentors from across the technology scene in Tanzania, Code for Resilience Fellows, from the University of Dar es Salaam and experts from Dar es Salaam City Council, all working together to develop these applications. It offers a bright future for collaboration and a more resilient Tanzania!

Learn more about mentorship, fellowship and code sprint activities at codeforresilience.org and learn more about community mapping and flood resilience in Dar es Salaam at http://ramanihuria.org.

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CfR Fellows and MentorsCfR Washiriki na Washauri/wakufunzi.

Dar es Salaam na Stone Town ni miji mikubwa miwili ya Tanzania na Zanzibar, yenye idadi ya watu milioni 5.5 na  150,000 kwa mtiririko. Kila mji katika hizi  nchi  una changamoto   na  majanga ya kipekee.Dar es Salaam kwa mfano inaathiriwa na mafuriko ya kila mwaka ambayo huwa yanaathiri maelfu ya wakazi wake kila mwaka. Katika kukabiliana na hili Benki ya Dunia,GFDRR, Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team na  Red Cross wanasaidiana na Tume ya Taifa ya  Sayansi na Teknolojia, Buni Innovation Hub, Dar es Salaam City Council, Ardhi Chuo Kikuu na Chuo Kikuu Cha Dar es Salaam na mradi wa utengenezaji ramani za kijamii za kupambana na mafuriko,Ramani Huria.Katika kuwaweka pamoja hawa wadau,Ramani Huria ilifaidika na ujuzi wa zaidi ya wanajamii 100, wanafunzi 150, katika kukusanya taarifa za maeneo yanayoathiriwa sana na mafuriko  Dar es Salaam,kutengeneza ramani na kuweka data za Dar es Salaam ziwe huria kwa mtumiaji yeyote.

Muunganiko wa taasisi hizi na wanajamii ulianzisha midahalo mingi jinsi gani taarifa na ramani zinaweza kuboresha maisha ya wananchi, pia ilitoa mtazamo jinsi gani ya kuongeza uwezo wa kukabiliana na mafuriko kutoka katika serikali za mitaa hadi serikali kubwa. Hivyo kukawa na mwanzo wa Code for Resilience, Benki ya Dunia na  GFDRR walisaidia mpango,uliolenga kuleta pamoja kizazi cha wanateknolojia pamoja na sera na wafanya maamuzi ili kujenga kizazi kipya cha kupambana na majanga. Hii ilifanyikka kwa kusaidia wanateknolojia vijana 6 werevu wa kiTanzania kwa mpango wa ushirika na ushauri,wakifanyia kazi tatizo lilipatikana kutoka kwa wafanya maanuzi na watengeneza sera.

Huu muunganiko umepelekea kuboreshwa kwa QGIS na InaSafe,programu huria ambazo zinatengeneza matukio ya athari za mafuriko, ambazo zinazoweza kutoa taarifa ni hatua gani za marekebisho ya miundominu na/au mipango ya uokoaji katika jamii.Moja kati ya uboreshaji huo ni kuongezeka kwa uchambuzi wa kuonyesha kiasi cha maeneo yanayoathirika na mafuriko,kulingana na kiwango cha mvua katika eneo husika.Hii ni programu huru ambayo itafanya uchambuzi wa mojamoja wa masuala ya maji katika jiji la Dar es Salaam na kuwezesha mipango ya kupambana na mafuriko kutoka kwenye hatua ya wanajamii, wafanyakazi wa serikalini pia na dunia kiujumla.

Kila mji una vipaumbele vyake, Zanzibar,changamoto iliyopo ni kuandaa taarifa ambazo tayari zipo.Programu huru ya ZanSea Geonode  ndiyo inayosaidia kuandaa taarifa, kwa msaada wa StatOil, Obscom and the State University of Zanzibar, taarifa za kijiographia  za Zanzibar zinaandaliwa. Taarifa zilizopo  ndo chachu ya kuandaa taarifa, na nyingine ni Code For Resilience ambayo ina washiriki kutoka State University of Zanzibar, Massoud Hamad na  Yussuf Said,wanafanya kazi ya kutoa majibu ya mwisho ya mbadilishano wa taarifa zilizopo kutoka Geonode kwenda QGIS  na kurudi Geonode. Baadaye hii itasaidia meta data  kutengenezwa na kufanya taarifa ziwe za  kisasa katika kuzifadhi,kuzirudisha, kuchambua na kuzihifadhi tena kwa ajili ya ZanSea Geonode na baadae kuifungua Geonode kwa dunia nzima.

Miradi hii na mingineyo, kama vile kuprinti 3D kwenye  vituo vya hali ya hewa  kutoka plastiki zilizorudiwa kutengenezwa na moja kwa moja kupelekwa kwa watu, ilifanyiwa kazi tarehe30 mwezi wa kwanza Buni Innovation Hub Tanzania. Hili tukio lilihusisha wakufunzi kutoka sehemu mbalimbali za kiteknolojia Tanzania,washiriki kutoka  Code for Resilience,Chuo Kikuu Cha Dar es Salaam na wataalamu kutoka jiji la Dar es Salaam, wote wakifanya kazi kwa pamoja kutengeneza programu hizi. Hii italeta ushirikiano na Tanzania yenye uwezo.

Unaweza kusoma zaidi kuhusu ukufunzi,ushiriki na kazi za coding katika codeforresilience.org na kuhusu utengenezaji wa ramani za kijamii za mafuriko Dar es Salaam katika http://ramanihuria.org.

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