Piloting solid management system on informal settlements by creating data sets for trash collection companies to help them in locating and track their clients
Dar es Salaam is one of the fastest growing cities in Africa. The population is expected to grow so much, that Dar es Salaam is projected to be the second largest city by population in the world by 2100, with a predicted population of 76 million, (according to World Population Review). The annual growth rate is expected to average 4.39% through the year 2020. In the next three years the population is expected to reach 5 million.
With this rate of rapid urbanization and population increase with 70% of its people living in informal settlements, waste management (solid waste in particular) is a serious problem. Concurrent with recent socio economic development, the quantity of solid waste generated has increased at a rapid rate. There have been policies and laws to guide solid waste management in Dar es Salaam but it has never been effective, such that people tend to dump solid waste any way they can as there is no proper and effective way of waste collection
Flooding in Dar es Salaam is mainly caused by blockage of the waterways, i.e. rivers, drains, streams, ditches, etc. People dump solid waste and cause such blockages. Materials like metal, plastics, and sometimes natural debris are being dumped causing flooding. Without proper and effective ways of managing waste, floods will continue to overwhelm the drainage system, overflowing into communities, In Tabata most houses are flooded due to blocked drains.
HOT, with their local partner OMDTZ and supported by the World Bank, decided to pilot a mapping activity in an informal settlement (Tabata Ward) similar to what they have done in formal areas (Mchafukoge and Kisutu wards) and create datasets that may help trash company collectors to effectively collect trash from their clients.
HOT and OMDTZ partnered with Joshemi Company Limited, a company dealing with trash collection in Tabata. Tabata is an administrative ward in the Ilala District. According to the 2002 census, the ward had a total population of 46,228. The ward is comprised of eight subwards [Mandela, Kisiwani, Tenge, Msimbazi Mama, Msimbazi Magharibi, Tabata, Matumbi and Mtambani]. It is mainly comprised of informal settlementsand is found along the Msimbazi River valley (the main flooding river in the city).
Joshemi Company has created a weekly schedule for every subward where they have to collect the solid waste. Residents and owners of business firms must pay a certain amount to the company depending on the size of the trash bag.
The Aim of Mapping
JCL needed to know the number of clients as it was very difficult to track them all, revenue flow and an effective feedback system on services provided by the company. The aim was shifting JCL’s analogue system of trash collection to a digital system by providing them with their own maps of clients’ locations and a system of tracking them. This way, JCL would improve their services to clients, increase their revenues and create an effective waste collection mechanism.
Pilot mapping was conducted in two subwards of Tabata Ward (Msimbazi Magharibi and Msimbazi Mama). As our policy has always relied on open source software, we used OpenDataKit (ODK) Collect and OpenMapKit (OMK) – an extension of ODK which is a free and open android application for data collection. The team worked with revenue collectors to conduct mapping as they have a better understanding of the area to ease the process of data collection.
The team prepared an excel sheet with ward, subward name, the name of mjumbe, location together with client information including name, phone number, month, amount and receipt ID. To ease the process, fake ID numbers were created to identify clients’ houses because in informal settlements there are no house numbers. The sheet was then printed and given to the mappers for data collection, data cleaningand processing.
Outcomes and Impact
The company has a full understanding of the location and number of clients and challenges that their clients face. As the company now knows the number of clients, they plan to improve their services by having more trucks and more trips. Before mapping, they were only serving 300 clients, and after mapping, they have come to a realization that there are 2000 clients that need to be provided with the service. This will not only increase the company’s revenue but also improve service to the citizens and keep the ward clean.
Johanes Petro, a mapping supervisor at OMDTZ is very positive about the initiative. He said,
“This initiative will lead to improved waste management as the company now knows they have many clients, they may double or triple services and the clients will be serviced accordingly. In turn, this will increase revenue to the company and improve services to citizens”. He added, “There is a need to replicate this process to all informal settlements in Dar es Salaam which will contribute to a sustainable and clean city as the system created is user friendly”
Note: Until now, our team is working with the revenue collectors to capacitate them on data use and help to establish the link between the excel sheet prepared and established layers of OMK.
Challenges in Data Collection
The team started the process of data collection with the revenue collectors, but the revenue collectors were a bit hesitant to provide full collaboration as they were fraudsters and printing counterfeit receipts. So they believed if the company is provided with reliable data and the exact number of clients under service, their stealing methods would be revealed. So they did not collaborate and the company fired them.
Mappers had to shift from working with revenue collectors to shina leaders, famously known as “wajumbe” – the hyper local leaders (the most granular level of administration that exists in Tanzania). These leaders are responsible to administer a small cluster of houses ranging from 50 to 200 houses, and they are citizens’ primary point of contact. So working with them is an advantage as they are well known and trusted by the community
What is Next?
Seeing the positive outcomes on the two pilot subwards, there is a need to extend the project to the remaining six subwards of Tabata and even to the whole city if we had the support and funding from different partners. Joshemi Company that we’re working with are also eagerly waiting for the extension to the remaining subwards as they understand the power of data now- they even decided to pay community leaders and wajumbe that were helping mappers on data collection.
If this process is replicated in the remaining wards of the city, trash collection will be easier, the city will be clean and may also reduce the intensity of flooding as it is normally caused by blocked drains and rivers. There is also a need to develop an integrated solid management system which is cost effective and that takes into account economic options for solid waste management like recycling. The community and the general public also need to take responsibility on the process by collaborating with waste collection companies because the benefits are reciprocal. Our mappers are working on solidifying relationships between clients and companies as there was observed drift among them.
[:en]Ramani Huria was excited to be invited by the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) to present on digital community mapping to GIS Masters students on 29th of February, 2016. The session was facilitated by Dr. Festus Ndumbaro, university lecturer on Cartography and GeoVisualization. Ramani Huria presented on ‘Web Maps’ and led a discussion with the students, allowing for knowledge transfer between graduated and current students from UDSM.
Mapping Supervisor Innocent Maholi presenting on the work of Ramani Huria PHOTO CREDIT: Ramani Huria
The Ramani Huria team began by giving an overview of community mapping they are facilitating on Dar es Salaam, with the focus on flood resilience. We explained how we conducted mapping, with students and community members, and some of the challenges and opportunities experienced thus far. Following this, we introduced OpenStreetMap (OSM) to the students, including some of the key principles of open source, that the map is free for all to use and reuse. The students were particularly interested in the differences between OpenStreetMap and Google Maps. The team explained that Google requires you to have a license in order use their map data, OSM on the other hand is free to use as long as you credit OSM.
Aerial imagery was also discussed with the students, Ramani Huria uses imagery we have captured ourselves with drones (mbtiles), Bing, and DigitalGlobe imagery. A student noted that the drone imagery captured by Ramani Huria is much clearer than other providers.
The GIS Masters students had the opportunity to ask questions throughout the session PHOTO CREDIT: Ramani Huria
Following the session, students noted that they were very interested to learn more and requested the Ramani Huria return and present on additional topics, including JOSM and other tools to allow them to map and process data for their neighbourhoods. The facilitating lecturer, Dr. Ndumbaro, encouraged the students to spend some time to explore and experiment with OSM, learning the tools and mapping their own communities.
We found the students to be engaged and enthusiastic, asking many questions about all the topics raised through our presentations. At the end of the session they were left with a thorough and holistic knowledge of the work of Ramani Huria and OpenStreetMap.
The day was a great opportunity to share our mapping skills and experience with a new audience and continue our excellent relationship with the university, particularly the Department of Geography.[:sw]Ramani Huria walikuwa na furaha kualikwa na Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam(UDSM) kuwasilisha Jinsi ya kuhusisha jamii katika utengenezaji wa ramani kwa digitali kwa wanafunzi wa shahada ya Uzamili tarehe 29, Februari, 2016. Kipindi kiliendeshwa na Dr. Festus Ndumbaro Mhadhiri wa masomo ya kutengeneza Ramani na Taswira. Ramani Huria iliwasilishwa kwa ramani za mtandao na kuruhusu majadiliano na wanafunzi, kubadilishana maarifa kati ya wahitimu na wanafunzi kutoka chuo kikuu cha Dar es Salaam.
Msimamizi wa Utengenezaji wa Ramani Innocent Maholi akiwasilisha kazi za Ramani Huria .Picha kutoka Ramani Huria
Timu ya Ramani Huria ilianza kuelezea kwa ujumla jinsi walivyotekeleza zoezi la kushirikisha jamii kuandaa ramani katika mkoa wa Dar es Salaam ikiwa na lengo la kuzuia Mafuriko. Tulielezea namna tulivyokusanya taarifa kwa ushirikiano na wanafunzi pamoja na wanajamii, na baadhi ya changamoto na fursa tulizoziona. Tulifundisha OpenStreeMap (OSM) kwa wanafunzi, tukijumuisha kanuni za kutumia vyanzo wazi, kuwa Ramani ni huru kila mtu anaweza kutumia. Wanafunzi walionyesha nia ya kujua tofauti kati ya OpenStreetMap na Ramani za Google.Timu ilieleza kuwa Google inahitaji mtu kuwa na leseni kwa ajili ya matumizi ya Ramani, wakati OSM ni bure kutumia cha msingi kufungua akaunti.
Vile vile picha za Anga zilizongumziwa na wanafunzi . Ramani Huria wanatumia picha walizopiga wenyewe kwa kutumia drone(mbtiles), Bing na Digital Globe. Wanafunzi waligundua kuwa picha za anga zilizopigwa na drone inaonekana vizuri kuliko nyingine.
Wanafunzi wa shahada ya Uzamili wakipata nafasi ya kuuliza maswali wakati kipindi kinaendelea. Picha kutoka Ramani Huria
Kutokana na kipindi, wanafunzi walionekana wana shauku kubwa sana ya kujifunza zaidi kuhusu Ramani Huria hivyo waliomba wawezeshaji warudi na kuwafundisha mada nyingine zaidi, ikiwa ni pamoja na JOSM na zana nyingine ambazo zitawasaidia katika mchakato wa kukusanya taarifa na kuandaa ramani katika maeneo yao. Dr Ndumbaro, Ambaye ni mhadhiri aliwatia moyo wanafunzi kutumia muda wao kuchunga na kufanya majaribio ya OSM, kujifunza zana na kuandaa ramani katika jamii zao
Pia tuligundua kuwa wanafunzi wana shauku kubwa ya kujifunza ambapo waliuliza maswali mengi kutoka katika mada tulizoziwakilisha. Mwisho wa kipindi wanafunzi walikuwa na uelewa wa jinsi Ramani huria na Openstreetmap zinavyofanya Kazi
Hii ilikuwa ni siku kubwa kwetu ambapo tulipata fursa ya kuwashirikisha ujuzi na uzoefu wetu kwa wasikilizaji wapya pamoja na kuendeleza uhusiano wetu mzuri na Chuo kikuu cha Dar es salaam, hasa idara ya jiografia[:]
The convergence of these organisations and community members has kickstarted many discussions around how data and maps can improve the livelihoods of citizens, but also provided focus on how enhance the capacity of flood resilience and response by local and national government. This was fertile ground for Code for Resilience, a World Bank and GFDRR supported program, aimed at brining the next generation of technologists together with policy and decision makers to create the next generation of resilience applications. This is done through supporting six of the Tanzania’s brightest young technologists through a fellowship and mentorship program, working on problem statements derived from decision and policy makers.
This combination has led to the enhancement of the QGIS and InaSafe, open source softwares that create flood impact scenarios, that can then be used to inform on community level infrastructure improvements and/or evacuation planning. One such enhancement is the addition of elevation analysis to identify the extent of flood prone areas, based upon the amount of rainfall that such an area receives. This is an open source application that will automate the hydrologic analysis for Dar es Salaam City Council and allow for inundation scenarios to be created by community level civil servants, but also by the global commons.
Every city has it’s own priorities, in Zanzibar, the challenge is around organising the data that they already have. The open source ZanSea Geonode is helping do exactly this, with the support of StatOil, Obscom and the State University of Zanzibar, Zanzibar’s geospatial data is being organised. Metadata is a key part of data organisation, and one that two Code For Resilience fellows from the State University of Zanzibar, Massoud Hamad and Yussuf Said, are working on providing end to end metadata exchange, from Geonode to QGIS and back. In future this will allow metadata to be created and updated during data storage, retrieval, analysis and back to storage for the ZanSea Geonode and in future releases of Geonode around the world.
Each of these projects and others, such as 3D printing weather stations from recycled plastic and automating the delivery of population statistics, were initiated on the 30th of January at the Buni Innovation Hub in Tanzania. This event incorporated mentors from across the technology scene in Tanzania, Code for Resilience Fellows, from the University of Dar es Salaam and experts from Dar es Salaam City Council, all working together to develop these applications. It offers a bright future for collaboration and a more resilient Tanzania!
Dar es Salaam na Stone Town ni miji mikubwa miwili ya Tanzania na Zanzibar, yenye idadi ya watu milioni 5.5 na 150,000 kwa mtiririko. Kila mji katika hizi nchi una changamoto na majanga ya kipekee.Dar es Salaam kwa mfano inaathiriwa na mafuriko ya kila mwaka ambayo huwa yanaathiri maelfu ya wakazi wake kila mwaka. Katika kukabiliana na hili Benki ya Dunia,GFDRR, Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team na Red Cross wanasaidiana na Tume ya Taifa ya Sayansi na Teknolojia, Buni Innovation Hub, Dar es Salaam City Council, Ardhi Chuo Kikuu na Chuo Kikuu Cha Dar es Salaam na mradi wa utengenezaji ramani za kijamii za kupambana na mafuriko,Ramani Huria.Katika kuwaweka pamoja hawa wadau,Ramani Huria ilifaidika na ujuzi wa zaidi ya wanajamii 100, wanafunzi 150, katika kukusanya taarifa za maeneo yanayoathiriwa sana na mafuriko Dar es Salaam,kutengeneza ramani na kuweka data za Dar es Salaam ziwe huria kwa mtumiaji yeyote.
Muunganiko wa taasisi hizi na wanajamii ulianzisha midahalo mingi jinsi gani taarifa na ramani zinaweza kuboresha maisha ya wananchi, pia ilitoa mtazamo jinsi gani ya kuongeza uwezo wa kukabiliana na mafuriko kutoka katika serikali za mitaa hadi serikali kubwa. Hivyo kukawa na mwanzo wa Code for Resilience, Benki ya Dunia na GFDRR walisaidia mpango,uliolenga kuleta pamoja kizazi cha wanateknolojia pamoja na sera na wafanya maamuzi ili kujenga kizazi kipya cha kupambana na majanga. Hii ilifanyikka kwa kusaidia wanateknolojia vijana 6 werevu wa kiTanzania kwa mpango wa ushirika na ushauri,wakifanyia kazi tatizo lilipatikana kutoka kwa wafanya maanuzi na watengeneza sera.
Huu muunganiko umepelekea kuboreshwa kwa QGIS na InaSafe,programu huria ambazo zinatengeneza matukio ya athari za mafuriko, ambazo zinazoweza kutoa taarifa ni hatua gani za marekebisho ya miundominu na/au mipango ya uokoaji katika jamii.Moja kati ya uboreshaji huo ni kuongezeka kwa uchambuzi wa kuonyesha kiasi cha maeneo yanayoathirika na mafuriko,kulingana na kiwango cha mvua katika eneo husika.Hii ni programu huru ambayo itafanya uchambuzi wa mojamoja wa masuala ya maji katika jiji la Dar es Salaam na kuwezesha mipango ya kupambana na mafuriko kutoka kwenye hatua ya wanajamii, wafanyakazi wa serikalini pia na dunia kiujumla.
Kila mji una vipaumbele vyake, Zanzibar,changamoto iliyopo ni kuandaa taarifa ambazo tayari zipo.Programu huru ya ZanSea Geonode ndiyo inayosaidia kuandaa taarifa, kwa msaada wa StatOil, Obscom and the State University of Zanzibar, taarifa za kijiographia za Zanzibar zinaandaliwa. Taarifa zilizopo ndo chachu ya kuandaa taarifa, na nyingine ni Code For Resilience ambayo ina washiriki kutoka State University of Zanzibar, Massoud Hamad na Yussuf Said,wanafanya kazi ya kutoa majibu ya mwisho ya mbadilishano wa taarifa zilizopo kutoka Geonode kwenda QGIS na kurudi Geonode. Baadaye hii itasaidia meta data kutengenezwa na kufanya taarifa ziwe za kisasa katika kuzifadhi,kuzirudisha, kuchambua na kuzihifadhi tena kwa ajili ya ZanSea Geonode na baadae kuifungua Geonode kwa dunia nzima.
Miradi hii na mingineyo, kama vile kuprinti 3D kwenye vituo vya hali ya hewa kutoka plastiki zilizorudiwa kutengenezwa na moja kwa moja kupelekwa kwa watu, ilifanyiwa kazi tarehe30 mwezi wa kwanza Buni Innovation Hub Tanzania. Hili tukio lilihusisha wakufunzi kutoka sehemu mbalimbali za kiteknolojia Tanzania,washiriki kutoka Code for Resilience,Chuo Kikuu Cha Dar es Salaam na wataalamu kutoka jiji la Dar es Salaam, wote wakifanya kazi kwa pamoja kutengeneza programu hizi. Hii italeta ushirikiano na Tanzania yenye uwezo.
[:en]Independence Day and Republic Day in Tanzania falls on the 9th of December, typically a day off work with many people gathering at the National Stadium to watch parades match in front of the President. Dances are performed and a torch is carried up Mount Kilimanjaro, symbolising liberty and self-determination of the nations in Africa. However, in 2015, for the first time, the day will be celebrated in a very different way.
Recently elected, President Magufuli declared that celebrations of Independence Day and Republic Day would be a chance for all citizens of the country to clean their local environment, from offices to schools, streets to homes. With support from all Government departments & agencies, many private organisations and non-governmental organisations also participated in the efforts – including Ramani Huria! The efforts were named #HapaUsafiTu (Here is just cleaning), reflecting the slogan of the recently elected president, ‘Hapa Kazi Tu’ (Here is just work).
Ramani Huria and Red Cross volunteers taking part in #HapaUsafiTu PHOTO CREDIT: Ramani Huria
Ramani Huria volunteers participated in #HapaUsafiTu in several of the wards we have conducted mapping, including the wards of Ndugumbi, Tandale, Vingunguti, Manzese, Mzimini, Kigogo, Mwanayamala, Buguruni, Magomeni, Manzese.
Volunteers working hard to clean streets PHOTO CREDIT: Ramani Huria
As well as cleaning activities, including of bus stands such as Chama in Buguruni, the volunteers engaged with residents of the wards on the importance of sanitation. Recently Dar es Salaam and several areas of Tanzania has seen outbreaks of Cholera so the cleaning efforts could not come at a more important time. With many wards of Dar es Salaam being highly populated and unplanned, much of the population is it high risk for the outbreak of disease, especially in rainy season. The volunteers discussed with community members how best to maintain the cleanliness of areas, specifically clearing rubbish and keeping waterways and drains free of blockages.
Cleaning in Kigogo ward, one of the areas Ramani Huria has mapped PHOTO CREDIT: Ramani Huria
After a day of intensive cleaning iit was apparent that this day of work had had a big impact on the city of Dar es Salaam. Through the discussions we had with community members, many people felt that there should be similar days in the future and had plans to request from the local administration that there be additional cleaning activities. Ramani Huria and the volunteers from Red Cross and HOT were all please to be able to continue to support the wards we have been actively mapping.[:sw]Siku ya Muungano na siku ya Jamuhuri Tanzania huadimishwa tarehe 9 Desemba, Kawiaida ni siku isiyo na kazi ambapo watu wengi hukusanyika uwanja wa Mkuu wa Taifa kushuhudia gwaride mbele ya Raisi. Ngoma huchezwa na Mwenge wa Uhuru hupelekwa had juu ya Mlima Kilimanjaro, kuonesha alama ya uhuru na Kujitawala kwa mataifa ya Bara la Africa.
Raisi aliyechaguliwa hivi karibuni Raisi Magufuli alitangaza kuwa madimisho ya siku ya uhuru Jamuhuri itakuwa ni nafasi ya raia wote kufanya usafi katika mazingira yao kuanzia ofisini had mashuleni, mtaani hadi majumbani,. Kwa usaidizi kutoka kwa idara zote za serikali na Mashirika.Mashirika mengi binafsi na mashirika yasiyo ya serikali pia yalishiriki katika juhudi hizi, ikiwa pamoja na Ramani Huria.Juhudi hizi zilipewa jina #HapaUsafiTu (hapa ni usafi tuu). Kwenda sambamba na kauli mbiu ya Raisi aliyechaguliwa hivi karibuni , “Hapa Kazi Tu.
Ramani Huria na Red Cross waliojitolea wakijihusihsa na #HapaUsafiTu, PICHA KUTOKA: Ramani Huria
Watu waliojitolea kutoka Ramani Huria walihusika katika #HapaUsafiTu katika baadhi ya kata walizowahi kupita kuengeneza Ramni, ikiwa ni pamoja na Ndugumbi, Tandale, Vingunguti, Manzese, Mzimuni, Kigogo, Mwananyamala, Buguruni na Magomeni
Waliojitolea wakifanya usafi kwa nguvu katka mitaa.PICHA KUTOKA :Ramani Huria
Pia kuhusu shughuli za usafi, pamoja na vituo vya daladala kama Chama ndan ya Buguruni, waliojitolea walishiriki na wakzi wa zile katakwa umuhimu wa usafi wa mazingira.Hivi karibuni Dar es Salaam na baadhi ya maeneo ya Tanzania kumekuwa na mlipuko wa ugonjwa wa Kipindupindu kwa hiyo juhudi za kufanya usafi haitokuwa mwisho.Na kata nyingi za Dar es Salaam zina ongezeko kubwa la idadi ya watu na kutopangwa.idadi kubwa ya watu ipo katika hatari ya kukubwa na mlipuko wa magonjwa, hasa msimu wa mvua. Waliojitolea walizungumza na jamii namna nzuri ya kudumisha usafi katika maeneo, hasa kuondoa takataka, kuweka mifereji ya maji na mitaro kutokuzibwa.
Usafi ndani ya Kata ya Mzimuni, moja kati ya eneo Ramani Huria walitengeneza ramani. PICHA KUTOKA:Ramani Huria
Baada ya siku ya Usafi, imekuwa dhahiri siku hii imekuwa na faida kubwa kwa jiji. Katika mjadala na jamii, watu wengi waliona kuwa lazima kutakuwa na siku kama hiyo siku zijazo na walikuwa na wazo la kuomba katika utawala wa mtaa kuwa kuwepo na ongezeko la shughuli za usafi. Ramani Huria na watu waliojitolea kutoka Red Cross na HOT waliomba waendelee kutoa misaada katika kata walizotengenezea Ramani.[:]